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Short Answers (4 questions x 5 = 20): type your answers, each limited to 6 lines (NOT 6 sentences). Everyone must do numbers 1-2. 1. Explain how Big Shot’s Funeral makes fun of rampant commercialism in the following two (2) scenes: Tyler’s reincarnation as a black boy; an insane businessman defining who counts as a successful person. What is Feng Xiaogang’s position on commercialism (e.g., supportive, critical, or else)? 2. Explain how 24 City perceives urban transformation in the following two (2) scenes: workers singing in a large auditorium; Zhao Tao’s character in her Volkswagen beetle car in an empty lot. What is Jia Zhangke’s evaluation of socialist legacy (e.g., nostalgic, critical, or else)? Then choose two (2) others from numbers 3-6 that you did NOT discuss in your term paper. 3. Describe how you interpret these two (2) details from Plunder of Peach and Plum: the child is abandoned at an orphanage; the old principal visits the imprisoned former student. What message does the film send by ending in tragedy? 4. Cite two (2) examples from It’s My Day Off to illustrate how the film emphasizes the importance of everyone helping others. What reward does the model policeman get in the end and why is it important? 5. Discuss the meanings of these two (2) details from Ermo: Ermo repeatedly sells her blood; Ermo dozes off while the TV screen shows nothing. What is the film’s judgment on Ermo’s success in postsocialist China? 6. Explain your interpretation of these two (2) examples from Suzhou River: Mada and Mudan die in an accident; the videographer refuses to look for the disappeared Meimei. What is the director’s overall view of Shanghai? Outline for Position Paper Your Topic (e.g., “immigration benefits” “immigration dangers” “diversity in America” or “open borders”): Immigration Benefits Your Interesting Title: Immigrants: The Backbone of America Your Course Source (Underline at least one, but you may use others): “The New Demographics,” “Changing Face of America: The Diversity Index explained,” Lexington, Beck, Hayter, Rhetorcial Analysis Source #2 (write down which one – any Source 2 from any group) Source #1: Envision in Depth book page 525-527 (The Hub Nation) Lexington Source #2: The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration http://nap.ed/catalog/5779.html Source #3: Ten Ways Immigrants Help Build and Strengthen Our Economy https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2012/07/12/ten-ways-immigrants-help-build-and-strengthen-our-economy PART ONE—INTRODUCTION (see handout from class): An introduction should answer the question, “Why do we care about the topic?” Some approaches include: Hook (e.g., anecdote, scenario, surprising statistic or fact, or some way to engage the reader, etc.) Historical background or context-building (i.e., kairos, doxa). Your hook:The definition of immigration is moving to a foreign country to live. With that being said, let’s say we move every single immigrant out of America. What would we have left? Nothing because immigration is how we became a country. Historical background or context-building: Immigrants move to another country in order to find a better life than what they left behind in one aspect or another. Prior to the Mayflower landing on American soil, America consisted of Native Americans who did not want to establish a country. They just wanted to be left alone. With this being said, had the pilgrims not migrated to America in search of religious freedom, we wouldn’t be a country. The last sentence of your first paragraph includes your central argument, expressed as a thesis statement (or near the end of the introduction). Your thesis statement can follow this example format: (Claim) because(Reason 1), (Reason 2), and (Reason 3). Example: Landlords should not select renters based on race or religious affiliation (Claim) because it could create a homogenous community in the affected areas (REASON 1), it would be an unfair denial of equal rights (REASON 2), and because it could be economically damaging to landlords themselves (REASON 3). Your thesis statement: Immigration is an important aspect of the American culture (CLAIM) because immigrants provide need cultural diversity (REASON 1), help America continue to be a global network (REASON 2), and, most importantly, strengthen the economy (REASON 3). PART TWO—REASONING: Reason 1 (from thesis) Topic sentence which indicates topic of the paragraph and expresses primary support for thesis. Supporting details: • Use persuasive appeals (ethos, but not misuse of ethos, pathos, but not exaggerated pathos, and logos, but not logical fallacies) to support Reason 1 • Analyze and explain the evidence for the reader. What does it mean? How does it support your argument? Repeat this for each of your major reasons. Reason 1 Topic Sentence: Cultural diversity is what America was built around and is essential to our country because we are the freedom country. • Supporting details o People, from many different cultures, immigrated to America in search of freedom. Without many different cultures deciding to seek a better life together, we wouldn’t be a country. o We strive to maintain freedom in America and can only continue this by giving freedom to people with open arms. o America is considered “the melting pot” because it is made up of many different cultures and there isn’t one specific culture that defines it. In other words, how can we be against cultural diversity if that is what we are made up of? Reason 2 Topic Sentence: Immigration is the only reason that America has a strong global network that is continuously growing. • Supporting details o A road runs both ways.Immigrants maintain links with the places they came from, immigrants help America plug into a vast web of global networks (Lexington). In other words, immigrants move to our country and when doing that they help us establish connections to their country. o Without immigration, we wouldn’t have enhanced technology due to the fact that we wouldn’t have the knowledge needed to enhance it as we have. This would have negative effects on our country as a whole because our society revolves around technology. o We also wouldn’t have the medical capabilities that we do, not only because our technology wouldn’t be as enhanced, but also because we need to understand practices from all over the world in order to improve ours. Reason 3 Topic Sentence: The main, and most important, reason that immigration is essential in America is because immigrants are the backbone of our economy. • Supporting details o As someone who has experienced the American culture, I can accurately state that many Americans are lazy. They don’t want to do service or, what they would consider, underprivileged jobs. Many immigrants don’t care what job they do as long as they have access to a job. o Immigrants are 30% more likely to start a business than Americans are (Source #3). An economy cannot grow without growing businesses. o A large percentage of scientists, innovators, and engineers in America are immigrants (Source #3). Once again, immigration brings a growth of knowledge to America. PART THREE—ADDRESSING COUNTER-ARGUMENTS: • Acknowledgement of counter-argument to (with concession if necessary) • Rebuttal to counterargument to (with refutation or concessionif necessary) Repeat this for each of your major reasons. Vocabulary of counterargument and rebuttal techniques: Counter-argument – opposing view; common arguments against the writer’s argument Concession – admittance of valid points made by opposing side, or in what contexts the points are valid Rebuttal – the writer’s answer to the counter-argument, contradicting it, supporting thesis Qualification – adding description that explains limitations of views or claims Refutation – explaining, demonstrating why/that the opposing side is wrong Last Body Paragraph Counter-argument: Reason 1:Having so many cultures in one country just makes it hard to keep everyone happy. • Rebuttal (with concession if necessary) While cultural diversity does cause many disagreements, it is better to disagree and be able to see many different points of view than to agree because you don’t know any other way. Reason 2:If we did everything in-house, then we wouldn’t need a strong global network. • Rebuttal (with concession if necessary) Every country wishes that they could do everything that is needed within the borders of a country and not have to rely on anyone else. While this could be done, it would take centuries to develop ideas that we are able to develop in years due to global networking. Reason 3:If we didn’t have immigrants, there wouldn’t be an unemployment rate because American’s would have more jobs available. • Rebuttal (with concession if necessary) Just because an American doesn’t have a job doesn’t mean it is because they haven’t been offered one. No, if we took away immigrants, we wouldn’t have anyone to do the very essential service level jobs because Americans are to proud. PART FOUR—A DAZZLING CONCLUSION (see handout from class): In addition to restating your opinion with a paraphrase, you have a lot of freedom and flexibility to make your closing paragraph interesting. For example, you can: discuss the future of your topic and possible directions it could take discuss other things related to your topic and how many of them are affected by your topic (in order to show the reader how important your topic is) Suggest a possible solution (if applicable) Paraphrase of thesis:Without immigration, America wouldn’t strong because it would not have cultural diversity, a strong global network nor a strong economy. Summary of key support:The backbone of America is immigrants. If you take away how America was founded, then you take away any future that it has. Dazzling point:Unfortunately, we may soon see the effect that losing its immigrants would have on America due to the immigration laws that are currently in process of being established.

Short Answers (4 questions x 5 = 20): type your answers, each limited to 6 lines (NOT 6 sentences).

Everyone must do numbers 1-2.

  1. Explain how Big Shot’s Funeral makes fun of rampant commercialism in the following two (2) scenes: Tyler’s reincarnation as a black boy; an insane businessman defining who counts as a successful person. What is Feng Xiaogang’s position on commercialism (e.g., supportive, critical, or else)?
  2. Explain how 24 City perceives urban transformation in the following two (2) scenes: workers singing in a large auditorium; Zhao Tao’s character in her Volkswagen beetle car in an empty lot. What is Jia Zhangke’s evaluation of socialist legacy (e.g., nostalgic, critical, or else)?

Then choose two (2) others from numbers 3-6 that you did NOT discuss in your term paper.

  1. Describe how you interpret these two (2) details from Plunder of Peach and Plum: the child is abandoned at an orphanage; the old principal visits the imprisoned former student. What message does the film send by ending in tragedy?
  2. Cite two (2) examples from It’s My Day Off to illustrate how the film emphasizes the importance of everyone helping others. What reward does the model policeman get in the end and why is it important?
  3. Discuss the meanings of these two (2) details from Ermo: Ermo repeatedly sells her blood; Ermo dozes off while the TV screen shows nothing. What is the film’s judgment on Ermo’s success in postsocialist China?
  4. Explain your interpretation of these two (2) examples from Suzhou River: Mada and Mudan die in an accident; the videographer refuses to look for the disappeared Meimei. What is the director’s overall view of Shanghai?

Outline for Position Paper

Your Topic (e.g., “immigration benefits” “immigration dangers” “diversity in America” or “open borders”):

Immigration Benefits

Your Interesting Title:

Immigrants: The Backbone of America

 

Your Course Source (Underline at least one, but you may use others):

“The New Demographics,” “Changing Face of America: The Diversity Index explained,” Lexington, Beck, Hayter, Rhetorcial Analysis Source #2 (write down which one – any Source 2 from any group)

Source #1: Envision in Depth book page 525-527 (The Hub Nation) Lexington

Source #2: The New Americans: Economic, Demographic, and Fiscal Effects of Immigration

http://nap.ed/catalog/5779.html

Source #3:  Ten Ways Immigrants Help Build and Strengthen Our Economy

https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/blog/2012/07/12/ten-ways-immigrants-help-build-and-strengthen-our-economy

 

 

PART ONE—INTRODUCTION (see handout from class):

An introduction should answer the question, “Why do we care about the topic?”  Some approaches include:

  • Hook (e.g., anecdote, scenario, surprising statistic or fact, or some way to engage the reader, etc.)
  • Historical background or context-building (i.e., kairos, doxa).

Your hook:The definition of immigration is moving to a foreign country to live. With that being said, let’s say we move every single immigrant out of America. What would we have left? Nothing because immigration is how we became a country.

Historical background or context-building:

Immigrants move to another country in order to find a better life than what they left behind in one aspect or another. Prior to the Mayflower landing on American soil, America consisted of Native Americans who did not want to establish a country. They just wanted to be left alone. With this being said, had the pilgrims not migrated to America in search of religious freedom, we wouldn’t be a country.

 

 

 

The last sentence of your first paragraph includes your central argument, expressed as a thesis statement (or near the end of the introduction).  Your thesis statement can follow this example format: (Claim) because(Reason 1), (Reason 2), and (Reason 3).

  • Example: Landlords should not select renters based on race or religious affiliation (Claim) because it could create a homogenous community in the affected areas (REASON 1), it would be an unfair denial of equal rights (REASON 2), and because it could be economically damaging to landlords themselves (REASON 3).

Your thesis statement:

Immigration is an important aspect of the American culture (CLAIM) because immigrants provide need cultural diversity (REASON 1), help America continue to be a global network (REASON 2), and, most importantly, strengthen the economy (REASON 3).

 

 

PART TWO—REASONING:

Reason 1 (from thesis)

  • Topic sentence which indicates topic of the paragraph and expresses primary support for thesis.
  • Supporting details:
    • Use persuasive appeals (ethos, but not misuse of ethos, pathos, but not exaggerated pathos, and logos, but not logical fallacies) to support Reason 1

 

  • Analyze and explain the evidence for the reader. What does it mean?  How does it support your argument?

 

Repeat this for each of your major reasons.

 

 

Reason 1 Topic Sentence:

Cultural diversity is what America was built around and is essential to our country because we are the freedom country.

  • Supporting details
  • People, from many different cultures, immigrated to America in search of freedom. Without many different cultures deciding to seek a better life together, we wouldn’t be a country.
  • We strive to maintain freedom in America and can only continue this by giving freedom to people with open arms.
  • America is considered “the melting pot” because it is made up of many different cultures and there isn’t one specific culture that defines it. In other words, how can we be against cultural diversity if that is what we are made up of?

 

Reason 2 Topic Sentence:

Immigration is the only reason that America has a strong global network that is continuously growing.

 

  • Supporting details
  • A road runs both ways.Immigrants maintain links with the places they came from, immigrants help America plug into a vast web of global networks (Lexington). In other words, immigrants move to our country and when doing that they help us establish connections to their country.
  • Without immigration, we wouldn’t have enhanced technology due to the fact that we wouldn’t have the knowledge needed to enhance it as we have. This would have negative effects on our country as a whole because our society revolves around technology.
  • We also wouldn’t have the medical capabilities that we do, not only because our technology wouldn’t be as enhanced, but also because we need to understand practices from all over the world in order to improve ours.

 

Reason 3 Topic Sentence:

The main, and most important, reason that immigration is essential in America is because immigrants are the backbone of our economy.

  • Supporting details
  • As someone who has experienced the American culture, I can accurately state that many Americans are lazy. They don’t want to do service or, what they would consider, underprivileged jobs. Many immigrants don’t care what job they do as long as they have access to a job.
  • Immigrants are 30% more likely to start a business than Americans are (Source #3). An economy cannot grow without growing businesses.
  • A large percentage of scientists, innovators, and engineers in America are immigrants (Source #3). Once again, immigration brings a growth of knowledge to America.

 

 

 

 

PART THREE—ADDRESSING COUNTER-ARGUMENTS:

 

  • Acknowledgement of counter-argument to (with concession if necessary)
  • Rebuttal to counterargument to (with refutation or concessionif necessary)

 

Repeat this for each of your major reasons.

Vocabulary of counterargument and rebuttal techniques:

Counter-argument – opposing view; common arguments against the writer’s argument

Concession – admittance of valid points made by opposing side, or in what contexts the points are valid

Rebuttal – the writer’s answer to the counter-argument, contradicting it, supporting thesis

Qualification – adding description that explains limitations of views or claims

Refutation – explaining, demonstrating why/that the opposing side is wrong

 

Last Body Paragraph Counter-argument:

                Reason 1:Having so many cultures in one country just makes it hard to keep everyone happy.

    • Rebuttal (with concession if necessary)

While cultural diversity does cause many disagreements, it is better to disagree and be able to see many different points of view than to agree because you don’t know any other way.

Reason 2:If we did everything in-house, then we wouldn’t need a strong global network.

    • Rebuttal (with concession if necessary)

Every country wishes that they could do everything that is needed within the borders of a country and not have to rely on anyone else. While this could be done, it would take centuries to develop ideas that we are able to develop in years due to global networking.

Reason 3:If we didn’t have immigrants, there wouldn’t be an unemployment rate because   American’s would have more jobs available.

    • Rebuttal (with concession if necessary)

Just because an American doesn’t have a job doesn’t mean it is because they haven’t been offered one. No, if we took away immigrants, we wouldn’t have anyone to do the very essential service level jobs because Americans are to proud.

 

PART FOUR—A DAZZLING CONCLUSION (see handout from class):

In addition to restating your opinion with a paraphrase, you have a lot of freedom and flexibility to make your closing paragraph interesting.  For example, you can:

  • discuss the future of your topic and possible directions it could take
  • discuss other things related to your topic and how many of them are affected by your topic (in order to show the reader how important your topic is)
  • Suggest a possible solution (if applicable)

Paraphrase of thesis:Without immigration, America wouldn’t strong because it would not have cultural diversity, a strong global network nor a strong economy.

Summary of key support:The backbone of America is immigrants. If you take away how America was founded, then you take away any future that it has.

Dazzling point:Unfortunately, we may soon see the effect that losing its immigrants would have on America due to the immigration laws that are currently in process of being established.