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Instructions: Read the “Analyzing Cognitive and Educational Evaluation Report” provided for student Adam Gallery. Based on the report, create a table with a row for each assessment. Clearly identify each assessment. In the first column, provide a summary of the results that will help guide appropriate educational decisions. (Do not simply cut and paste the findings.) In the next column, describe how each assessment is technically sound and minimizes rater bias. In the last column, explain why the selected assessment tool is appropriate for this student. Name: Gallery, Adam School: Rolling Meadows Date of Birth: 04/05/1994 Teacher: Mr. Robinson Age: 11 years, 11 months Grade: 6.5 Sex: Male Examiners: Dr. Kowalczyk and Dr. Jones Dates of Testing: 05/01/2014, 02/25/2014, 02/20/2014 REASON FOR REFERRAL James Robinson, Adam’s teacher, referred him for an evaluation of observed interpersonal problems. Specifically, Adam displays a great deal of anxiety when interacting with his peers. In addition, Mr. Robinson suspects Adam may have a learning disability, specifically related to math content. This evaluation is intended to address the following question: Is there evidence for an ability/achievement discrepancy? TEACHER’S REPORT Mr. Robinson described Adam as attentive, caring, and conscientious, but he is also shy. (This information represents Mr. Robinson’s observations of Adam over the previous month.) At times, Adam seems unhappy, but overall, his mood varies normally. He said that Adam needs more one-to-one attention, but completes about as much schoolwork as other boys his age. Mr. Robinson reported certain characteristics that likely facilitate Adam’s classroom performance. He usually attends to details in schoolwork. His oral responses to questions are slow, but careful. Some reported behaviors might be inhibiting Adam’s performance. Adam seems to have difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. He usually attempts, but gives up easily, when confronted with difficult tasks. He often loses his personal belongings. Adam is easily distracted. When seated, Adam is often lethargic. Outside the classroom, he seems sluggish or lacking in energy. His style of motor activity seems slower and overly careful in comparison to other boys his age. Adam generally talks much less than other boys his age. He typically avoids interacting with his peers. However, when he does, he often has difficulty awaiting his turn. Mr. Robinson is most concerned about the way Adam interacts with his peers; he believes this generally impairs Adam’s classroom performance. Mr. Robinson reported that Adam demonstrates serious withdrawn behaviors in the classroom. He demonstrates slightly serious anxious behaviors in the classroom. Mr. Robinson rated Adam’s levels of listening comprehension, reading comprehension, and written expression as average. His levels of oral expression, basic reading skill, and basic writing skill were rated as limited. His levels of mathematics calculation and mathematics reasoning were rated as negligible. FATHER’S REPORT Mr. Gallery provided the following information. Adam lives with his mother and father, along with three other children, ages 7, 6, and 2. There have been no significant changes in Adam’s family life recently. According to his father, Adam has a health condition, but does not require medication. Adam had a recent vision test; his vision is normal when he wears corrective lenses. No hearing problems were reported; Adam’s hearing was tested recently. At night, Adam typically sleeps soundly for 8 or 9 hours. During pregnancy, Adam’s mother had no significant health problems. Adam’s delivery was normal. Immediately after birth, Adam was healthy. Adam’s father remembers Adam as an affectionate, playful, and calm infant and toddler, but also shy and withdrawn. His early motor skills, such as sitting up, crawling, and learning to walk, developed normally. His early language development, such as first words, asking simple questions, and talking in sentences, seemed to be typical. Adam attended preschool, beginning at age 4. His preschool cognitive development and social skills progressed normally. Adam had no atypical behavior management problems. Mr. Gallery believes that Adam has learning problems and has been concerned about this for about a year. At the time of this assessment, Mr. Gallery described Adam as reserved and caring, but also shy. (These descriptions are based on Mr. Gallery’s observations of Adam over the previous year.) Adam’s mood is typical of others his age. He typically avoids interacting with his peers. Mr. Gallery said that Adam likes some things about school but dislikes other things. Generally, he tries to succeed at schoolwork. Some things that Mr. Gallery reported may be significant. Adam frequently fails to pay close attention to details or makes careless mistakes. He seems to have difficulty organizing and sustaining attention during his tasks and play activities. He often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish his homework. Adam usually attempts, but gives up easily, when confronted with difficult tasks. Mr. Gallery reported that Adam demonstrates slightly serious problem behaviors at home; these include inattentiveness, anxiousness, and withdrawal. SELF-REPORT Adam lives with his mother and father. Altogether, there are five people in Adam’s home. There have been no significant changes in Adam’s home life recently. He has a health condition, but he does not require medication. Adam had a recent vision test; he can see normally when he wears corrective lenses. Adam’s hearing is normal; he recently had a hearing test. When asked to describe himself, Adam said that he likes some things about school but dislikes other things. Generally, he tries to succeed at schoolwork. He likes some things about himself and dislikes other things. Adam typically avoids interacting with others. Although he typically avoids interacting with his father, he has a very close relationship with his mother. Adam usually is patient and organized, attends to details while working, concentrates long enough to get his work done, and finishes the work he starts. He usually remembers what he is supposed to do. He often has difficulty relaxing. Further, he has recently experienced an inability to concentrate. Adam always, or almost always, keeps his personal belongings in order; this is a characteristic that facilitates cognitive and academic performance. One reported behavior may be inhibiting Adam’s cognitive and academic performance; that is, he is easily distracted. Adam reported that he finds tasks involving comprehension-knowledge, auditory processing, long-term retrieval, short-term memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, basic writing skills, and written expression manageable. He finds tasks requiring processing speed difficult, and he finds oral expression, mathematics calculation, and mathematics reasoning very difficult. When recalling his early years of schooling, Adam said that he liked some things about school but disliked other things. Generally, he tried to succeed at schoolwork. He always, or almost always, kept his personal belongings in order. Adam usually attended to details and concentrated while doing schoolwork, followed instructions, and finished his homework. In social situations outside the home, he was less active than his peers. He had more difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or activities than his peers did. Adam often avoided, disliked, or was reluctant to engage in tasks that were difficult for him. His style of motor activity was slower than other boys his age. He could usually play quietly when required. Adam generally talked much less than other boys his age. He typically avoided playing with his peers. CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS Adam was observed in the classroom on 06/03/2014. James Robinson was the observer. A small-group activity was observed. Adam usually wears glasses and was wearing them during this observation. When compared to another male student who was identified as typical, Adam was observed as having more off-task behaviors. During the 15-minute observation, the comparison student was off-task 11 times; Adam was off-task 16 times. Inattentive behaviors and anxious behaviors were observed; these behaviors were slightly serious, but not disruptive to others. Withdrawn behaviors were observed; these behaviors were serious and slightly disruptive to others. The primary problem behavior observed was withdrawal. This behavior may have occurred because of group activities scheduled with the other students. According to Adam’s teacher, his behavior during this observation was typical for him. TESTS ADMINISTERED Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (administered on 02/20/2014 by Dr. Kowalczyk) WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (administered on 02/25/2014 by Dr. Kowalczyk) Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (administered on 05/01/2014 by Dr. Jones) The WJ III tests provided measures of Adam’s overall intellectual ability, specific cognitive abilities, academic achievement, and oral language abilities. Relative strengths and weaknesses among his cognitive and academic abilities are described in this report. A description of each ability is provided. His performance is compared to peers from the same age group using a standard score range. Adam’s proficiency is described categorically, ranging from negligible to average; his test performance can be generalized to similar, non-test, age-level tasks. Clinical interpretation (with qualitative observations) of cognitive and academic task performance is provided. Additionally, the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test was administered to provide a measure of non-verbal intelligence. INTELLECTUAL ABILITY Adam’s overall intellectual ability, as measured by the WJ III GIA (Ext) score, is in the average range of those his age. There is a 68% probability that his true GIA score would be included in the range of scores from 95-99. As measured by the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) FSIQ, Adam’s intellectual ability is also in the average range of standard scores of others his age. There is a 68% probability that his true UNIT FSIQ score would be included in the range for scores from 90-100. COGNITIVE ABILITIES Intra-Cognitive Variations When compared to others his age, Adam’s cognitive abilities are in the average range in working memory, short-term memory, fluid reasoning, auditory processing, visual-spatial thinking, processing speed, phonemic awareness, comprehension-knowledge, and long-term retrieval. Clinical Interpretation of Cognitive Fluency and Executive Processing Adam’s overall speed in performing cognitive tasks is average. For example, his performance on tasks measuring speed of forming simple concepts was average; he made decisions slowly. On tasks measuring speed of direct recall of simple vocabulary, Adam’s performance was average. On tasks measuring fluency of retrieval from stored knowledge, Adam gave examples very slowly; his performance was average. His overall ability to plan, monitor, and arrive at solutions to problems is average. Specifically, Adam’s ability to maintain focus on a task amid visual distractors is average. Adam’s adaptive learning and flexibility in thinking are average. Even though Adam’s strategic planning ability appeared to be impulsive in style, his performance was average. During testing, Adam’s ability to focus his attention on relevant stimuli for information processing purposes was average. ACHIEVEMENT Intra-Achievement Variations Among his achievement and oral language abilities, Adam has a relative strength in basic reading skills. Basic reading skills include sight vocabulary, phonics, and structural analysis skills. His basic reading skills standard score is within the low average range (percentile rank range of 20-28; standard score range of 87-91) when compared to others his age. His basic reading skills are limited; Adam will probably find age-level tasks requiring accurate word perception and use of decoding skills very difficult. Listening comprehension is also a relative strength for him. Listening comprehension includes listening ability and verbal comprehension. His listening comprehension standard score is within the average range (percentile rank range of 20-38; standard score range of 87-95) when compared to others his age. Adam’s listening and oral comprehension abilities are limited to average; it is likely that he will find age-level tasks requiring listening skills, working memory, and oral comprehension difficult. When compared to others his age, Adam’s academic achievement is in the average range in oral expression. Academic knowledge is a sampling of Adam’s knowledge in the sciences, history, geography, government, economics, art, music, and literature. His standard score is within the low average range (percentile rank range of 9-24; standard score range of 80-89) when compared to others his age. Adam’s academic knowledge is limited; this suggests that he will find similar age-level tasks very difficult. Basic writing skills include spelling skills and knowledge of English language usage. His basic writing skills standard score is within the low average range (percentile rank range of 10-20; standard score range of 81-87) when compared to others his age. Adam’s basic writing skills are limited; it is predicted that he will find age-level tasks requiring spelling of single-word responses and knowledge of conventions of English writing very difficult. His handwriting legibility is average. Adam’s punctuation and capitalization skills are low average. Reading comprehension measures Adam’s reading vocabulary and his ability to comprehend connected discourse while reading. His reading comprehension standard score is within the low range (percentile rank range of 4-9; standard score range of 74-80) when compared to others his age. His reading comprehension is limited; Adam will likely find age-level tasks requiring the ability to decode and understand printed text very difficult. Written expression measures Adam’s fluency of production and quality of expression in writing. His written expression standard score is within the low range (percentile rank range of 3-10; standard score range of 71-81) when compared to others his age. His overall ability to express himself in writing is limited; Adam will probably find age-level tasks requiring clear expression and organization of sentences very difficult. Among his achievement and oral language abilities, he has a relative weakness in math calculation skills. Math calculation skills measure Adam’s computational skills and automaticity with basic math facts. His mathematics calculation skills standard score is within the very low range (percentile rank of <1; standard score range of 30-43) when compared to others his age. Adam’s mathematics calculation skills are very limited; it is likely that he will find age-level tasks requiring computational skills and automaticity with basic math facts extremely difficult. Mathematics reasoning is also a relative achievement weakness for him. Mathematics reasoning includes mathematical knowledge and reasoning. Adam’s mathematics reasoning standard score is within the very low range (percentile rank of <1; standard score range of 5-12) when compared to others his age. His mathematics reasoning ability is negligible; this suggests that he will find age-level tasks requiring the ability to reason with concepts involving quantitative or mathematical relationships and knowledge impossible. Individual Tests Reading fluency measures Adam’s ability to quickly read simple sentences. In this timed test, Adam was required to indicate whether each simple sentence was true or false. Adam’s standard score is within the average range (percentile rank range of 22-47; standard score range of 89-99) when compared to others his age. His fluency with reading tasks is average; he will probably find age-level tasks requiring efficient operation of reading processes manageable. Story recall-delayed measures Adam’s language development and meaningful memory using previously presented stories. Adam was asked to recall details of stories presented in story recall after a specified period of time. Adam’s standard score is within the average range (percentile rank range of 5-66; standard score range of 75-106) when compared to others his age. His ability to recall complex details previously presented is average; it is likely that he will find similar age-level tasks manageable. Spelling of sounds is a measure of Adam’s spelling ability, particularly phonological and orthographical coding skills. This test required him to spell letter combinations regularly used in English. Adam’s standard score is within the average range (percentile rank range of 18-41; standard score range of 86-97) when compared to others his age. His ability to spell non-words is average; this suggests that he will find similar age-level tasks manageable. Sound awareness is a measure of Adam’s phonological awareness, including his ability to rhyme words and manipulate word sounds. Adam’s standard score is within the low average range (percentile rank range of 10-31; standard score range of 81-92) when compared to others his age. His sound awareness is limited to average; it is predicted that he will find similar age-level tasks difficult. Clinical Interpretation of Academic Processing Academic Skills Overall, Adam’s academic skills are very limited. In particular, his sight reading ability is limited. Initially, he was able to rapidly and accurately identify test items, but as the items progressed in difficulty, his responses seemed to lack applications of phoneme-grapheme relationships. His spelling is limited; the automaticity of his responses to spelling items appeared to be typical for his age. Adam’s math calculation skill is negligible. He gave incorrect responses on math calculations involving addition and subtraction. Academic Fluency The overall fluency with which Adam performs academic tasks is limited. For example, his fluency with reading tasks is average; he made several errors and read sentences slowly. His fluency with mathematics problems is limited; he solved problems slowly and made several errors. Adam’s writing fluency is limited. He wrote appropriate sentences at a pace typical for his age. Academic Applications Adam’s overall ability to apply his academic skills is negligible. Specifically, on a passage comprehension task, his performance was limited to average. His writing ability is limited; the sentences he wrote were inadequate when compared to what would be expected for his age. Adam’s quantitative reasoning is negligible; he appeared to have limited understanding of age-appropriate math application tasks. He gave incorrect responses on math reasoning items involving number concepts and subtraction. Phoneme/Grapheme Knowledge Adam’s overall knowledge of phoneme/grapheme relationships is limited to average. In particular, his ability to spell non-words is average. His ability to sequence sounds and knowledge of common English spelling patterns appear to be typical for his age. His ability to pronounce non-words is limited. Initially, he answered items easily and accurately; his responses to the more difficult items were slower and less fluent. INFORMAL WRITING EVALUATION Additional information about Adam’s writing abilities was obtained from an evaluation of a narrative writing assignment. Adam’s handwriting was rated as adequate. His abilities to form letters correctly, to use consistent spacing, to stay on the line, and to form letters automatically were adequate. Adam’s spelling of regular and exception words was adequate. Adam’s punctuation and capitalization skills (including the correct use of sentence-ending punctuation, internal punctuation, capital letters, and paragraph indentation) were adequate. Adam’s use of vocabulary (including age-appropriate, varied, and precise vocabulary) was adequate. Adam’s syntax and usage (including using correct word endings, maintaining verb tense, using pronouns correctly, writing complete sentences, and writing sentences of varied length and structure) was adequate. Adam’s narrative text structure rated as adequate. Qualities rated as adequate include his abilities to provide a setting, to describe the external characteristics of characters, to describe the internal responses of characters, to sequence ideas logically, to highlight important events, to include major details, to use appropriate words to link ideas together, to combine sentences into cohesive paragraphs, and to describe an ending or outcome. Overall, Adam demonstrated good ability to maintain focus and intent, appropriate voice, and discourse genre. Adam maintained a positive attitude and appeared confident when writing. This report has been used with permission.

Instructions: Read the “Analyzing Cognitive and Educational Evaluation Report” provided for student Adam Gallery. Based on the report, create a table with a row for each assessment. Clearly identify each assessment. In the first column, provide a summary of the results that will help guide appropriate educational decisions. (Do not simply cut and paste the findings.) In the next column, describe how each assessment is technically sound and minimizes rater bias. In the last column, explain why the selected assessment tool is appropriate for this student.

Name: Gallery, Adam

School: Rolling Meadows

Date of Birth: 04/05/1994

Teacher: Mr. Robinson

Age: 11 years, 11 months

Grade: 6.5

Sex: Male

Examiners: Dr. Kowalczyk and Dr. Jones

Dates of Testing:  05/01/2014, 02/25/2014, 02/20/2014

REASON FOR REFERRAL

James Robinson, Adam’s teacher, referred him for an evaluation of observed interpersonal problems.

Specifically, Adam displays a great deal of anxiety when interacting with his peers. In addition, Mr. Robinson suspects Adam may have a learning disability, specifically related to math content. This evaluation is intended to address the following question: Is there evidence for an ability/achievement discrepancy?

TEACHER’S REPORT

Mr. Robinson described Adam as attentive, caring, and conscientious, but he is also shy. (This information represents Mr. Robinson’s observations of Adam over the previous month.) At times, Adam seems unhappy, but overall, his mood varies normally. He said that Adam needs more one-to-one attention, but completes about as much schoolwork as other boys his age.

Mr. Robinson reported certain characteristics that likely facilitate Adam’s classroom performance. He usually attends to details in schoolwork. His oral responses to questions are slow, but careful.

Some reported behaviors might be inhibiting Adam’s performance. Adam seems to have difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities. He usually attempts, but gives up easily, when confronted with difficult tasks. He often loses his personal belongings. Adam is easily distracted.

When seated, Adam is often lethargic. Outside the classroom, he seems sluggish or lacking in energy. His style of motor activity seems slower and overly careful in comparison to other boys his age. Adam generally talks much less than other boys his age. He typically avoids interacting with his peers. However, when he does, he often has difficulty awaiting his turn. Mr. Robinson is most concerned about the way Adam interacts with his peers; he believes this generally impairs Adam’s classroom performance.

Mr. Robinson reported that Adam demonstrates serious withdrawn behaviors in the classroom. He demonstrates slightly serious anxious behaviors in the classroom.

Mr. Robinson rated Adam’s levels of listening comprehension, reading comprehension, and written expression as average. His levels of oral expression, basic reading skill, and basic writing skill were rated as limited. His levels of mathematics calculation and mathematics reasoning were rated as negligible.

FATHER’S REPORT

Mr. Gallery provided the following information. Adam lives with his mother and father, along with three other children, ages 7, 6, and 2. There have been no significant changes in Adam’s family life recently.

According to his father, Adam has a health condition, but does not require medication. Adam had a recent vision test; his vision is normal when he wears corrective lenses. No hearing problems were reported; Adam’s hearing was tested recently. At night, Adam typically sleeps soundly for 8 or 9 hours.

During pregnancy, Adam’s mother had no significant health problems. Adam’s delivery was normal. Immediately after birth, Adam was healthy.

Adam’s father remembers Adam as an affectionate, playful, and calm infant and toddler, but also shy and withdrawn. His early motor skills, such as sitting up, crawling, and learning to walk, developed normally. His early language development, such as first words, asking simple questions, and talking in sentences, seemed to be typical.

Adam attended preschool, beginning at age 4. His preschool cognitive development and social skills progressed normally. Adam had no atypical behavior management problems.

Mr. Gallery believes that Adam has learning problems and has been concerned about this for about a year.

At the time of this assessment, Mr. Gallery described Adam as reserved and caring, but also shy. (These descriptions are based on Mr. Gallery’s observations of Adam over the previous year.) Adam’s mood is typical of others his age. He typically avoids interacting with his peers. Mr. Gallery said that Adam likes some things about school but dislikes other things. Generally, he tries to succeed at schoolwork.

Some things that Mr. Gallery reported may be significant. Adam frequently fails to pay close attention to details or makes careless mistakes. He seems to have difficulty organizing and sustaining attention during his tasks and play activities. He often does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish his homework. Adam usually attempts, but gives up easily, when confronted with difficult tasks.

Mr. Gallery reported that Adam demonstrates slightly serious problem behaviors at home; these include inattentiveness, anxiousness, and withdrawal.

SELF-REPORT

Adam lives with his mother and father. Altogether, there are five people in Adam’s home. There have been no significant changes in Adam’s home life recently. He has a health condition, but he does not require medication. Adam had a recent vision test; he can see normally when he wears corrective lenses. Adam’s hearing is normal; he recently had a hearing test.

When asked to describe himself, Adam said that he likes some things about school but dislikes other things. Generally, he tries to succeed at schoolwork. He likes some things about himself and dislikes other things. Adam typically avoids interacting with others. Although he typically avoids interacting with his father, he has a very close relationship with his mother. Adam usually is patient and organized, attends to details while working, concentrates long enough to get his work done, and finishes the work he starts. He usually remembers what he is supposed to do. He often has difficulty relaxing. Further, he has recently experienced an inability to concentrate.

Adam always, or almost always, keeps his personal belongings in order; this is a characteristic that facilitates cognitive and academic performance. One reported behavior may be inhibiting Adam’s cognitive and academic performance; that is, he is easily distracted.

Adam reported that he finds tasks involving comprehension-knowledge, auditory processing, long-term retrieval, short-term memory, listening comprehension, reading comprehension, basic writing skills, and written expression manageable. He finds tasks requiring processing speed difficult, and he finds oral expression, mathematics calculation, and mathematics reasoning very difficult.

When recalling his early years of schooling, Adam said that he liked some things about school but disliked other things. Generally, he tried to succeed at schoolwork. He always, or almost always, kept his personal belongings in order. Adam usually attended to details and concentrated while doing schoolwork, followed instructions, and finished his homework. In social situations outside the home, he was less active than his peers. He had more difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or activities than his peers did. Adam often avoided, disliked, or was reluctant to engage in tasks that were difficult for him. His style of motor activity was slower than other boys his age. He could usually play quietly when required. Adam generally talked much less than other boys his age. He typically avoided playing with his peers.

CLASSROOM OBSERVATIONS

Adam was observed in the classroom on 06/03/2014. James Robinson was the observer. A small-group activity was observed. Adam usually wears glasses and was wearing them during this observation.

When compared to another male student who was identified as typical, Adam was observed as having more off-task behaviors. During the 15-minute observation, the comparison student was off-task 11 times; Adam was off-task 16 times. Inattentive behaviors and anxious behaviors were observed; these behaviors were slightly serious, but not disruptive to others. Withdrawn behaviors were observed; these behaviors were serious and slightly disruptive to others. The primary problem behavior observed was withdrawal. This behavior may have occurred because of group activities scheduled with the other students. According to Adam’s teacher, his behavior during this observation was typical for him.

TESTS ADMINISTERED

Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement (administered on 02/20/2014 by Dr. Kowalczyk)

WJ III Tests of Cognitive Abilities (administered on 02/25/2014 by Dr. Kowalczyk)

Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (administered on 05/01/2014 by Dr. Jones)

The WJ III tests provided measures of Adam’s overall intellectual ability, specific cognitive abilities, academic achievement, and oral language abilities. Relative strengths and weaknesses among his cognitive and academic abilities are described in this report. A description of each ability is provided. His performance is compared to peers from the same age group using a standard score range. Adam’s proficiency is described categorically, ranging from negligible to average; his test performance can be generalized to similar, non-test, age-level tasks. Clinical interpretation (with qualitative observations) of cognitive and academic task performance is provided. Additionally, the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test was administered to provide a measure of non-verbal intelligence.

INTELLECTUAL ABILITY

Adam’s overall intellectual ability, as measured by the WJ III GIA (Ext) score, is in the average range of those his age. There is a 68% probability that his true GIA score would be included in the range of scores from 95-99. As measured by the Universal Nonverbal Intelligence Test (UNIT) FSIQ, Adam’s intellectual ability is also in the average range of standard scores of others his age. There is a 68% probability that his true UNIT FSIQ score would be included in the range for scores from 90-100.

COGNITIVE ABILITIES

Intra-Cognitive Variations

When compared to others his age, Adam’s cognitive abilities are in the average range in working memory, short-term memory, fluid reasoning, auditory processing, visual-spatial thinking, processing speed, phonemic awareness, comprehension-knowledge, and long-term retrieval.

Clinical Interpretation of Cognitive Fluency and Executive Processing

Adam’s overall speed in performing cognitive tasks is average. For example, his performance on tasks measuring speed of forming simple concepts was average; he made decisions slowly. On tasks measuring speed of direct recall of simple vocabulary, Adam’s performance was average. On tasks measuring fluency of retrieval from stored knowledge, Adam gave examples very slowly; his performance was average.

His overall ability to plan, monitor, and arrive at solutions to problems is average. Specifically, Adam’s ability to maintain focus on a task amid visual distractors is average. Adam’s adaptive learning and flexibility in thinking are average. Even though Adam’s strategic planning ability appeared to be impulsive in style, his performance was average. During testing, Adam’s ability to focus his attention on relevant stimuli for information processing purposes was average.

ACHIEVEMENT

Intra-Achievement Variations

Among his achievement and oral language abilities, Adam has a relative strength in basic reading skills.

Basic reading skills include sight vocabulary, phonics, and structural analysis skills. His basic reading skills standard score is within the low average range (percentile rank range of 20-28; standard score range of 87-91) when compared to others his age. His basic reading skills are limited; Adam will probably find age-level tasks requiring accurate word perception and use of decoding skills very difficult.

Listening comprehension is also a relative strength for him. Listening comprehension includes listening ability and verbal comprehension. His listening comprehension standard score is within the average range (percentile rank range of 20-38; standard score range of 87-95) when compared to others his age. Adam’s listening and oral comprehension abilities are limited to average; it is likely that he will find age-level tasks requiring listening skills, working memory, and oral comprehension difficult.

When compared to others his age, Adam’s academic achievement is in the average range in oral expression.

Academic knowledge is a sampling of Adam’s knowledge in the sciences, history, geography, government, economics, art, music, and literature. His standard score is within the low average range (percentile rank range of 9-24; standard score range of 80-89) when compared to others his age. Adam’s academic knowledge is limited; this suggests that he will find similar age-level tasks very difficult.

Basic writing skills include spelling skills and knowledge of English language usage. His basic writing skills standard score is within the low average range (percentile rank range of 10-20; standard score range of 81-87) when compared to others his age. Adam’s basic writing skills are limited; it is predicted that he will find age-level tasks requiring spelling of single-word responses and knowledge of conventions of English writing very difficult. His handwriting legibility is average. Adam’s punctuation and capitalization skills are low average.

Reading comprehension measures Adam’s reading vocabulary and his ability to comprehend connected discourse while reading. His reading comprehension standard score is within the low range (percentile rank range of 4-9; standard score range of 74-80) when compared to others his age. His reading comprehension is limited; Adam will likely find age-level tasks requiring the ability to decode and understand printed text very difficult.

Written expression measures Adam’s fluency of production and quality of expression in writing. His written expression standard score is within the low range (percentile rank range of 3-10; standard score range of 71-81) when compared to others his age. His overall ability to express himself in writing is limited; Adam will probably find age-level tasks requiring clear expression and organization of sentences very difficult.

Among his achievement and oral language abilities, he has a relative weakness in math calculation skills.

Math calculation skills measure Adam’s computational skills and automaticity with basic math facts. His mathematics calculation skills standard score is within the very low range (percentile rank of <1; standard score range of 30-43) when compared to others his age. Adam’s mathematics calculation skills are very limited; it is likely that he will find age-level tasks requiring computational skills and automaticity with basic math facts extremely difficult.

Mathematics reasoning is also a relative achievement weakness for him. Mathematics reasoning includes mathematical knowledge and reasoning. Adam’s mathematics reasoning standard score is within the very low range (percentile rank of <1; standard score range of 5-12) when compared to others his age. His mathematics reasoning ability is negligible; this suggests that he will find age-level tasks requiring the ability to reason with concepts involving quantitative or mathematical relationships and knowledge impossible.

Individual Tests

Reading fluency measures Adam’s ability to quickly read simple sentences. In this timed test, Adam was required to indicate whether each simple sentence was true or false. Adam’s standard score is within the average range (percentile rank range of 22-47; standard score range of 89-99) when compared to others his age. His fluency with reading tasks is average; he will probably find age-level tasks requiring efficient operation of reading processes manageable.

Story recall-delayed measures Adam’s language development and meaningful memory using previously presented stories. Adam was asked to recall details of stories presented in story recall after a specified period of time. Adam’s standard score is within the average range (percentile rank range of 5-66; standard score range of 75-106) when compared to others his age. His ability to recall complex details previously presented is average; it is likely that he will find similar age-level tasks manageable.

Spelling of sounds is a measure of Adam’s spelling ability, particularly phonological and orthographical coding skills. This test required him to spell letter combinations regularly used in English. Adam’s standard score is within the average range (percentile rank range of 18-41; standard score range of 86-97) when compared to others his age. His ability to spell non-words is average; this suggests that he will find similar age-level tasks manageable.

Sound awareness is a measure of Adam’s phonological awareness, including his ability to rhyme words and manipulate word sounds. Adam’s standard score is within the low average range (percentile rank range of 10-31; standard score range of 81-92) when compared to others his age. His sound awareness is limited to average; it is predicted that he will find similar age-level tasks difficult.

Clinical Interpretation of Academic Processing Academic Skills

Overall, Adam’s academic skills are very limited. In particular, his sight reading ability is limited. Initially, he was able to rapidly and accurately identify test items, but as the items progressed in difficulty, his responses seemed to lack applications of phoneme-grapheme relationships. His spelling is limited; the automaticity of his responses to spelling items appeared to be typical for his age. Adam’s math calculation skill is negligible. He gave incorrect responses on math calculations involving addition and subtraction.

Academic Fluency

The overall fluency with which Adam performs academic tasks is limited. For example, his fluency with reading tasks is average; he made several errors and read sentences slowly. His fluency with mathematics problems is limited; he solved problems slowly and made several errors. Adam’s writing fluency is limited. He wrote appropriate sentences at a pace typical for his age.

Academic Applications

Adam’s overall ability to apply his academic skills is negligible. Specifically, on a passage comprehension task, his performance was limited to average. His writing ability is limited; the sentences he wrote were inadequate when compared to what would be expected for his age. Adam’s quantitative reasoning is negligible; he appeared to have limited understanding of age-appropriate math application tasks. He gave incorrect responses on math reasoning items involving number concepts and subtraction.

Phoneme/Grapheme Knowledge

Adam’s overall knowledge of phoneme/grapheme relationships is limited to average. In particular, his ability to spell non-words is average. His ability to sequence sounds and knowledge of common English spelling patterns appear to be typical for his age. His ability to pronounce non-words is limited. Initially, he answered items easily and accurately; his responses to the more difficult items were slower and less fluent.

INFORMAL WRITING EVALUATION

Additional information about Adam’s writing abilities was obtained from an evaluation of a narrative writing assignment. Adam’s handwriting was rated as adequate. His abilities to form letters correctly, to use consistent spacing, to stay on the line, and to form letters automatically were adequate. Adam’s spelling of regular and exception words was adequate. Adam’s punctuation and capitalization skills (including the correct use of sentence-ending punctuation, internal punctuation, capital letters, and paragraph indentation) were adequate. Adam’s use of vocabulary (including age-appropriate, varied, and precise vocabulary) was adequate. Adam’s syntax and usage (including using correct word endings, maintaining verb tense, using pronouns correctly, writing complete sentences, and writing sentences of varied length and structure) was adequate.

Adam’s narrative text structure rated as adequate. Qualities rated as adequate include his abilities to provide a setting, to describe the external characteristics of characters, to describe the internal responses of characters, to sequence ideas logically, to highlight important events, to include major details, to use appropriate words to link ideas together, to combine sentences into cohesive paragraphs, and to describe an ending or outcome.

Overall, Adam demonstrated good ability to maintain focus and intent, appropriate voice, and discourse genre. Adam maintained a positive attitude and appeared confident when writing.

This report has been used with permission.